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Name of Collaboratory :


Campbell Collaboration (C2)


Logo :


URL :  

Collaboratory Status :

Operational   Start Date : 2000 End Date : Info Last Updated : Fri, Dec 3 2010 6:01pm PST

Primary Collaboratory Function :

  Community Data Systems  

Secondary Collaboratory Functions :

  Virtual Community of Practice, Distributed Research Center  

Domain(s) :

  Social Welfare, Psychology, Education, and Criminology

Brief Description of the Collaboratory :


The Campbell Collaboration (C2) helps people make well-informed decisions by preparing, maintaining and disseminating systematic reviews in education, crime and justice, and social welfare.

The Campbell Collaboration is an international research network that produces systematic reviews of the effects of social interventions. Campbell is based on voluntary cooperation among researchers of a variety of backgrounds. Campbells strategic and policy making body is the Steering Group.

The production of a systematic review is a truly collaborative effort. Reviews are always produced by review teams, bringing together methodological and content expertise, often supported by input from users (policy makers, practitioner and clients). Relevant methodological expertise includes: information/library science (searching and text retrieval), knowledge of primary research designs and methods, data management, and meta-analysis.

Campbell currently has five Coordinating Groups: Social Welfare, Crime and Justice, Education, Methods, and the Users group. The Coordinating Groups are responsible for the production, scientific merit, and relevance of our systematic reviews. They provide editorial services and support to review authors. Each Coordinating Group has two representatives on the Steering Group.

Campbell's International Secretariat is now located in Oslo and hosted by the Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services. Head Office supports all aspects of Campbell's work, including the production of systematic reviews, internal and external communication, fundraising, and arrangements for the Annual Colloquium and other events.

Campbell's editorial process and peer-review system
Campbell's proven editorial process and peer-review system provides authors with advice and skilled assistance in research design, statistical analysis and searching, as well as substantive expertise.

The staff (Editors, Trial Search Coordinators, and Coordinators) of each Coordinating Group provide authors with assistance in planning and executing systematic reviews.

Campbell reviews are published in the Campbell Library of Systematic Reviews, and are freely accessible online. Campbell systematic reviews can be updated as further relevant information emerges.


The Campbell Collaboration seeks to bring together the social science researcher with the social science practitioner. Campell is modeled after its sister organization the Cochrane Collaboration, which covers the health sciences. Campbell will publish systematic reviews of research in the social sciences, including the fields of education, criminology, psychology, and social welfare, focusing on "what works" in these fields. Campbell's first content--the Social, Psychological, Educational and Criminological Trials Register (C2-SPECTR)--was received from Cochrane in December 2002. This database contains nearly 12,000 randomized and possibly randomized trials in education, social welfare and criminal justice and is made available without restrictions on the Web. The database is currently managed with ProCite 5, an off-the-shelf software from the Thompson Company.

Campbell seeks to engage the general public, service providers, policy makers, educators, students, and professional researchers alike. A key goal of the project is to become a widely-used reference for policy makers. Current contributors do so out of goodwill and a belief they can make a difference with applied social sciences.

Stated values of the project are collaboration, good communications, open decision-making and teamwork are stated values of the project, good management practices, open access, economy of effort, and bias free, current, complete, relevant, and quality work.

As a younger and less centralized organization than Cochrane, Campbell is still seeking a funding model (source) to promote the broad creation and use of systematic reviews that Cochrane enjoys. The Nordic Countries and Australia have provided infrastructure funding to Campbell groups in their countries, focusing on social research and crime and justice, respectively, in their own countries. The social sciences are in general less central than the medical sciences, and there is also some debate about the focused use of quantitative research.


Access to Instruments :

  Access to the Campbell Library is free via the World Wide Web.  

Access to Information Resources :

  The systematic reviews are published consecutively in a peer-reviewed monograph series called Campbell Systematic Reviews, and are collected in the Campbell Library.


The C2-SPECTR database of over 10,000 randomized and possibly randomized trials in education, social work and welfare, and criminal justice is managed by ProCiteĆ³an off the shelf software product from the Thompson Company. Systematic reviews are presented in html from; there are currently tree of these.

Access to People as Resources :

  With partnerships developing in a number of countries, Campbell has held nine Annual Colloquia to date, in Philadelphia (twice), Stockholm, Washington, Lisbon, Los Angeles, London, Vancouver and Oslo.

The Colloquium provides a meeting place for policy makers and researchers, and stimulates the work of the organization. The program features a variety of presentations of completed systematic reviews in the fields of social welfare, education, and criminal justice, and the opportunity to attend training sessions on methodology and other issues.


Cambell Justice, hosted by Australian Institute of Criminology, organizes four international meetings a year and offers email lists and newsletter archives. The Methods Group, hosted by Duke University, also offers email lists and newsletter archives.

The Nordic Campbell Center also offers yearly colloquia and several training sessions a year. Campbell Collaboration hosts one colloquia a year. The Steering Group, which oversees management of Campbell, is made up of 14 people, they meet twice a year (at their own expense).

Funding Agency or Sponsor :

American Institues for Research (AIR)
Canadian Department of Justice
Danish Ministry of Social Welfare
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation
Hewlett Foundation
Jerry Lee Foundation
Knight Foundation
National Institute of Justice
Nordic Council of Ministers
Norwegian Directorate of Health
Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services (NOKC)
Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
Smith Richardson Foundation
Sweden's National Board of Health and Welfare
Swedish Council for Social Research (FAS)
United Kingdom Home Office
United States Department of Education
University of Pennsylvania Annenberg School of Communications
University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education (PennGSE)
University of Pennsylvania School of Social Work

Notes on Funding Agencies/Sponsors:
Major sponsors at present include the Norwegian Directorate of Health and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, as well as some of the others listed above.

The funding agencies listed above have largely supported individual centers or smaller projects, meetings, or initiatives with grants. Campbell lacks central infrastructure funding and is more decentralized than its sister organization, The Cochrane Collaboration. The Nordic Campbell Center is financed by a Danish government grant and is a subsidiary of the Danish National Institute of Social Research with specific focus on social and welfare policy. The Campbell Methods group is largely funded and hosted by Duke University while the Campbell Justice Center is hosted and funded by the Australia government.

Organizations Otherwise Associated:
Organization name:
Approx # of participants:
Description of organization's role(s):
Chief Scientist Office, Scotland (CSO)
Department of Social Policy and Social Work (Oxford)
University of Toronto
   Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work (University of Toronto)
Partner organization
George Mason University
Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU)
International Initiative for Impact Evaluation
Partner organization
University of Pennsylvania
   Jerry Lee Center of Criminology (UPenn)
Partner organization
Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services (NOKC)
Partner organization
Queens University Belfast
Loyola University Chicago
   School of Education (Loyola University Chicago)
University of Ottawa
Vanderbilt University

Notes on Participants/Organizations:
Also listed as partner organizations are the following collaboratories:
Cochrane Collaboration
Centre for the Study of Learning and Performance, Concordia University
Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre (EPPI-Centre)

The Steering Group is The Campbell Collaboration's (C2) strategic and policy making body. It establishes priorities and determines the scientific and general policies of Campbell. The Steering Group is the ultimate source of authority and independence of The Campbell Collaboration.

The Steering Group comprises two Co-chairs and two representatives of each Coordinating Group (Education, Social Welfare, Crime and Justice, Methods, the User's group). The Cochrane Collaboration (C1) is also represented. Campbell's CEO is a non-voting member.

The Steering Group meets at least twice a year.


27 countries are involved with Campbell in some way. Much participation is spurred by word of mouth promotion and the belief the use of systematic reviews in social welfare practice will improve outcomes of social welfare programs.
Leadership and management provided by Steering Committee which is made up of unpaid volunteers. Even travel expenses to/from meetings/colloquial are not covered. The lack of infrastructure/centralized funding has made coordination difficult. Persons who produce reviews share their rights with the Campbell Collaboration.


Communications Technology Used :

ProCite 5
Conference calls

Technical Capabilities :

  Asynchronous object sharing
Index/metadata, Email/attachments
Asynchronous conversation
Synchronous conversation
  Key Articles :    

Project-reported performance data :

  The Collaboration is in contact with over 6,000 individuals and organizations directly. receives over 50,000 hits on the website per quarter.  
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